Rengiah, P , 'Effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in developing entrepreneurial intentions among Malaysian university students', DBA thesis. However, the impact of the existing entrepreneurship education programs in This thesis has made contributions to the existing body of.
Thus, this study attempts to identify what factors of entrepreneurship affect innovative start-ups like ICT-based businesses that are quite effective in creating jobs. Since the dawn of the twenty-first century, the importance of entrepreneurship started to be recognized as an element of promoting economic growth so that the researches for finding how entrepreneurship contributes to the growth have become active. Park and Ahn explained to the young CEOs that entrepreneurship is an important factor in improving their business performances, and they need to expend the effort to cultivate their business competency.
The core of entrepreneurship is a positive energy that challenges or changes existing conventions by acutely responding to the changing environments with an innovative and creative mind.
Cultivating entrepreneurship for young people will be effective in solving the problems concerning youth unemployment, low and falling economic growth rates while contributing to Korean economic growth. There are varied opinions about the elements of entrepreneurship among the scholars. Schumpeter defined entrepreneurship as the driving force of modernization having the characteristics such as innovation-seeking spirit, pro-activeness and risk-taking tendencies.
Lassen et al. Based on the recent detailed and systematic researches conducted for the nature of entrepreneurship, the definition of entrepreneurship by Miller , who has claimed that the elements such as pro-activeness, innovativeness and risk-taking consist entrepreneurship, became the dominant view.
Thus, this study also considers these three characteristics as core elements. Meanwhile, Lee argued that innovativeness is one that an organization emphasizes the technological innovation or actively conducts product designing, market survey as well as product advertisement through product or market innovation based on process innovation and experimental management technique. Kang suggested that innovation is one of the elements of entrepreneurial strategies which can be an important means of promoting investments for consistent development of new technologies and improvement of products to gain a competitive advantage.
Therefore, with all of these definitions and contentions, innovativeness should be considered as a critical element of entrepreneurship with which companies can adapt themselves to the rapidly changing environment in the age of forth industrial revolution. Jung defined this term as a risk preferring decision-making behavior in an uncertain environment. While the entrepreneurs with low risk-taking tendency try to avoid risks or make decisions cautiously, ones with high risk-taking inclination tend to make decisions faster to capture opportunities Bin and Park, Risk-taking is meaningful only if an entrepreneur is proactive in seizing an opportunity, not just accepting the risks.
Pro-activeness is a future-oriented disposition that allows an entrepreneur to forecast future when he is supposed to make a decision strategically. The entrepreneur takes active behaviors after forecasting future opportunity and market demands. Lumpkin and Dess maintain that pro-activeness means a company preoccupying the market opportunity or holding a predominant position in the market. Covin and Slevin claimed that pro-active entrepreneurs compete more aggressively than the others.
That is, pro-activeness can be defined as a tendency or behavior of actively participating in the market changes one step ahead of their competitors Kim, It is possible to say that leadership is an important element in many success factors for start-ups and their continuous growth, but it is not easy to define them with a few words and its definition varies depending on the approaches taken individual researchers. Bass considered leadership as an interaction process among the group members to structure or restructure their perceptions and expectations.
Meanwhile, Northouse defined leadership as a process where an individual attempt to affect group members to achieve their common goal. A strong leadership that leads to harmonious and organized business activities is essential to achieve more than expected. This study attempts to analyze and substantiate the impact of a strong leadership on the entrepreneurial intentions and the success of start-ups.
In a complex information-oriented society like present, it is not easy for small-scale companies to satisfy economic demands while maintaining their competitiveness just by themselves, as they often lack some of the necessary resources. Creative ideas and networks are essential for achieving a successful business performance. Huggins and Johnston claimed that it is indispensable to use some of the external resources to surmount the difficulties in start-up businesses caused by the lack of internal resources. Similarly, Choi supported this by suggesting that start-ups will be able to optimize their performance by using the resources they lack by establishing some external networks.
The importance of networks and their roles are being emphasized in many types of research conducted for start-ups. Thus, this study also attempts to identify how network establishment and their activities affect the entrepreneurial intention of ICT majors in Busan area. The concept most widely used to understand the phenomena associated with the establishment of a business is entrepreneurship. Krueger et al. Considering that starting a business can be fulfilled through calculate and intentional activities, the first step, entrepreneurial intention, is essential for understanding overall phenomena involved in business start-up, as it is a key element in determining the early characteristics of start-ups Bird, ; Katz and Garter, Shapero claimed that the roles of entrepreneurs with entrepreneurial intentions are important for the nation, region or organization to have their power of recuperation to ride out economic downturns and self-reforming traits.
Therefore, it is important for our society to contribute to continuous economic growth by inculcating a positive perception in the minds of students with entrepreneurial intentions to promote and activate start-ups and let the ones with potentials to challenge and succeed.
To study the magnitude of influence factors of entrepreneurship of Busan-area ICT majors over their entrepreneurial intentions, we have randomly extracted the samples from the ICT majors in Busan area during the period from November 1, to February 15, A five-point scale was used for the survey. A total of questionnaires were distributed, and For the empirical analysis of influence factors, the SPSS Based on the study model shown in Figure 1 , a series of hypotheses were developed to deduce the influence factors and put to verification afterward.
A multiple regression analysis was used in this study to verify the effect of facilitating factors of entrepreneurship on the entrepreneurial intention dependent variable. Here, independent variables were also included for analysis i. From the results obtained from the multiple regression analyses performed against all the respondents, the applied regression equation was effective in explaining the dependent value, as the overall explanatory power for activation of entrepreneurial intention was Also, as the variance inflation factor VIF showed the maximum value of 1. However, innovativeness and risk-taking factors were excluded at this level.
For the study, some hypotheses for the influential factors of entrepreneurship which should be considered to promote the entrepreneurial intentions of ICT majors in Busan area have been developed and put to empirical analysis using a statistical technique. First, as for the verification by regression analysis, H1 , which assumes that entrepreneurship will give a positive influence on entrepreneurial intention was partially accepted compared to leadership which was fully accepted.
Innovativeness and risk-taking in H and H , respectively, were rejected as they did not have a positive influence, whereas pro-activeness H was accepted. This may have resulted from the fact that his survey was conducted for the general college students rather than for the ICT majors. The difference is that this study has targeted the ICT majors who have sufficient knowledge and experience that the high-tech industries involving artificial intelligence, robotics or other cutting-edge technologies can lead to a social innovation after being internalized as a foundation of our current society.
It is true that the knowledge associated with the 4th Industrial Revolution and in their potentials also contributes to such an innovation. Thus, this study has empirically proven that both innovativeness and risk-taking are not that influential, at least for the ICT majors in Busan area.
Table 3 Model summary. Table 4 Analysis of variance experiential teaching methods student's interest and business startup. Table 5 Coefficients a teaching methods and student's interest. Model Unstandardized coefficients Standardized coefficients T Sig. Correlations Collinearity statistics B Std.
Ethical considerations The researchers established that the respondents were sufficiently informed about the goal of this research and they were well-informed about the process and participation in the research. Acknowledgement The authors wish to appreciate the management of Covenant University for offering full sponsorship for this research work. Footnotes Transparency document Transparency data associated with this article can be found in the online version at Transparency document.
Supplementary material Supplementary material Click here to view. Appendix A. References 1. Akinbola, O. Ogunnaike, A. Amaihian, The influence of contextual factors on entrepreneurial intention of University Students in Nigeria.
Karali S. Erasmus School of Economics; Rotterdam, Netherlands: Olokundun M. Entrepreneurship educator's competence on university students' commitment to learning and business plan writing. Experiential pedagogy and shared vision: a focus on identification of business opportunities by Nigerian University Students. Articles from Data in Brief are provided here courtesy of Elsevier.
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Students should be exposed to entrepreneurship courses as early as second semester of their first year of study. Individual entrepreneurial intent: Construct clarification development of an internationally reliable metric. It is the act of opening and running a business venture for rendering services to people, creation of employment opportunities, as well as making profit. Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. These age brackets are typical of university students in Uganda given the fact that the majority join the university at the age of 19 to 20 years. An exploration of the impact of inculcating entrepreneurship education in schools in developing entrepreneurship skills. Following systematic item generation procedures Netemeyer et al.
It identifies the motivational influences on Russian students for studying in the UK, studying Business and Management and choosing a university. The research focuses specifically on three London-based modern UK universities, Postgraduate studies, in general, and Enterprise and Entrepreneurship Education EEE at those institutions and the entrepreneurial actions of Russian Graduate Entrepreneurs upon return to home country. This study is important for UK universities and transition and developing economies because it brings together these issues in a new way, and from a new perspective, and by reference to the entrepreneurial activity of returning Russian graduates who had studied abroad.
Thus far, the linking of international studies, education and entrepreneurship and top line economic impact has received little attention, though recent publications have examined peripheral issues.