According to Iannacchione , in the United States, research have always supported the introduction of monitoring programs as the potential tactics in meeting the needs of the students who engage themselves in risk behaviors. This program is district sponsored and it aims to helping the students at the middle schools to quit from risk behaviors. The program has professional mentors who receive, evaluate and prescribe the best type of counseling to the subjects.
From the year on word, the program has been seen to achieve near to its optimum in the sectors of student maturity and self-control. Within years, the system of education in the United States has developed in a very high rate in the last couple of years Webb, Through the new system, the kids are neither beaten nor given any punishment when the do wrongs. Through it, the students have indulged in so many risky behaviors because they know that they cannot be easily punished. Many of the minors get introduced to taking and selling of the substances in their respective schools. In some institution, the students may be studying with other kids who are dowers of bad things.
These bad kids can easily teach the good kids bad manners and ending up destroying the whole school. In many schools in the United States, impurity of the pupils mores has mainly being affected by bad influence and peer pressure. This is a situation where the students to bad things due to the motive and the influence of the group Lee, Some of the bad manners that are taught through this style include; strikes; rapes and abuse of drugs.
The juvenile justice discourages the punishing of the minors as it seems to be of less advantage to them. Rehabilitating them makes it of much use to them as they are able to visualize the mess they did in their actions. Certain measures are usually taken to make it easier for the rehabilitation process much easier.
There is a signed covenant for the child to facilitate the changes in the behavioral conduct. A probation officer is always involved in ensuring the compatibility and the adoption of changes as required. The officer screens each and every move made by the individual to ensure that the requirements and the expectations of the changes have been attained.
Some of the expected conditions are individual counseling, family counseling, community services, restitution, curfew or attending school. Counseling is the act of giving advice to particular in regard life situations Iannacchione, An advice given helps the individuals in making pronounced decisions.
It also helps in improving the personal perception about things and the interrelation with others. Once a minor has been advised on various issues affecting the day to date life situations, they are well equipped with life tactics in tackling different issues to enhance and discourage disagreements. Skilled personnel are usually liable for the counseling of those who have been recommended to undergo through counseling periods within the juvenile custody.
Counseling may be done from outside the custody of the police or through their custody Ousey, From the outside, the minor is required to appear to the counselor in the specified time and undertake the counseling. Those done under the police custody and the individuals are counseled by the counselor either as a large group or as individuals.
At times, the counseling may be done by the parents either through their expense or by themselves according to the stipulations of the jurisdiction. A minor may have a jurisdiction that recommends him or her to attend into community services. The services may include maintenance of communal facilities through cleaning; this is the most common mode of community service that minors are frequently subjected to. The minor have to be subjective in the undertaking of the duties to make sure that they are fulfilling the ruling that was lawfully made.
Curfew is a regulation from movement. Depending on the crime that the minor had committed, the court may find it worth restricting them from having the freedom of movement without any regulation or order from the authorities Morgen, This in return helps in their convalescence to a more responsible person. On some instances, the minors may be administrated to attend school programs as usual. This mostly applies to those who might have neglected to attend their lessons in schools. They are required to attend their classes as usual to enable them have a change in their relation with others as well fulfilling the expectations of the parents and guardians.
To sum up, the united states have experienced deaths and shootings that have made many parents feel that their communities are no longer safe.
The extreme actions of youth violence have led the country to increase the efforts of getting rid of the nuisance and thus opting juvenile justice. Juvenile justices have greatly impacted on the issues of minor criminological activities and the responsiveness towards their rehabilitation.
Making the minor adapt to the correct behavioral activities is much critical in ensuring that they clearly understand the concepts and the criteria to be used. Through the juvenile courts, this has been made much easier, and observable changes are at a rise. On the other hand the community should understand that a kid is the future of the country, in the sense that they will take over the ruling when their elders retire.
The individuals who are involved in spoiling of the kids should be dealt with by the law. Davila, M. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice , 3 3 , Fagan, A. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice , 10 1 , Iannacchione, B. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice , 4 3 , Kempf-Leonard, K.
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Although juvenile crime rates appear to have fallen since the mids, this decrease has not alleviated the concern. Many states began taking a tougher legislative stance toward juveniles in the late s and early s, a period during which juvenile crime rates were stable or falling slightly, and federal reformers were urging prevention and less punitive measures.
Some of the dissonance between the federal agenda and what was happening in the states at that time may have been caused by significant changes in legal procedures that made juvenile court processes more similar—though not identical—to those in criminal adult court. The main response to the most recent spike in violent juvenile crime has been enactment of laws that further blur distinctions between juvenile courts and adult courts. States continued to toughen their juvenile crime laws in recent years, making sentencing more punitive, expanding allowable transfers to criminal adult court, or doing away with some of the confidentiality safeguards of juvenile court.
Many such changes were enacted after the juvenile violent crime rate had already begun to fall. The rehabilitative model embodied in the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of , focusing on the needs of the young offender, has lost ever more ground over the past 20 years to punitive models that focus mainly on the offense committed.
These puni-. In , 40 percent of all those living below the poverty level in the United States were under the age of 18 Snyder and Sickmund, Structural changes in society, including fewer two-parent homes and more maternal employment, have contributed to a lack of resources for the supervision of children's and adolescents' free time. Government policy on juvenile delinquency must often struggle with the appropriate balance of concern over the healthy development of children and adolescents who violate the law and a public desire to punish criminals.
This tension between rehabilitation and punishment when dealing with children and adolescents who commit crimes results in an ambivalent orientation toward young offenders. Criminal acts must be suppressed, condemned, and punished. Nevertheless, children and adolescents who commit criminal acts must be educated and supported in a growth process that should be the objective of government policy for all young people, including young offenders.
A number of cognitive and social features of childhood and adolescence influence the content of juvenile crime policy.