Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries January Biodegradation of bioplastics in natural environments January Quantifying household waste of fresh fruit and vegetables in the EU - Open access July Plastic waste from recycling centres: Characterisation and evaluation of plastic recyclability 15 July Food waste accounting along global and European food supply chains: State of the art and outlook - Open access September Quantifying food losses and the potential for reduction in Switzerland - Open access March Food waste generation and industrial uses: A review November Digitalisation and intelligent robotics in value chain of circular economy oriented waste management — A review 15 July Post-consumer plastic packaging waste in England: Assessing the yield of multiple collection-recycling schemes - Open access May Need a bag?
A review of public policies on plastic carrier bags — Where, how and to what effect? Food waste management innovations in the foodservice industry September Global status of recycling waste solar panels: A review May Upcycling of cotton polyester blended textile waste to new man-made cellulose fibers - Open access September Household waste collection may be more acute in smaller cities.
Estimates suggest that a lower percentage of waste is collected in smaller cities than in larger cities.
This leaves a gap in the existing knowledge on cities with populations under one million people. While the Municipal Solid Waste Management and Handling Rules legally bind a municipal government to be responsible for municipal solid waste management MSWM , a closer look at MSWM systems reveals a range of waste service providers that is much more complex than a single provider. Materials to which no more value is added are referred to and disposed as waste; quantity and nature of different types of waste are dependent on the waste source.
The second function element encompassed the handling, separation, and storage at site of waste.
In this context, waste has to be subjected toward separation before being placed into suitable storage containers. Paper, cardboard, packaging plastics, glass, ferrous metals, aluminum cans, and organic waste are those components, which typically are separated and stored individually.
This step is crucial before moving to the next point. During the collection process, solid waste is picked up and placed into empty containers, which have separate compartments for recyclable materials [ 13 ]. Subsequently, the refuse collection staff collects the waste around the disposal centers manually before disposing it at the disposal sites. Figure 2 illustrates the individual steps involved from waste material generation at its source until the final functional element for ultimate waste disposal.
In urban regions, appropriate solid waste management facilities are essential for, on the one hand, environmental management and protection and, on the other hand, for public health. Strategies and techniques for solving waste problems on a regional scale inevitably have a large number of possible solutions in order to be implemented in different areas, which are characterized by variable population densities, different life standard and life style, number of locations for waste management infrastructure, and number and types of protected landscape areas and other high value ecological sites.
Environmentally benign waste management depends on various site-specific factors such as the composition of the waste, efficacy of waste collection at its source and of processing systems required to carry out different waste management techniques, feasibility of value-added material recovery from waste streams, emission standards to which waste management facilities are designed and operated, overall cost efficiency, and social performance of the community [ 7 ].
LCA as a tool supports or enables the holistic consideration of the environmental impact of a new product or process already in its infancy, hence, during development [ 14 ]. The evaluation of the existing situation of municipal solid waste management from an environmental, economic, and social perspective via a life cycle approach is an important first step prior to taking any decisions on the technologies to be selected, the policies to be developed, and the strategies to be followed for a nation [ 16 ].
Waste characterization is the first step to any successful waste management policy. In this paper, the characterization and the trend of solid waste generated in. View Solid waste management and treatment Research Papers on Academia. edu for free.
The considerable number of reported LCA computer models dedicated to municipal solid waste management, often resorting to the SPI quantification tool, emphasizes the applicability of LCA in issues related to municipal solid waste management systems. Typically, these models have been developed independently from each other and are often based on features and assumptions that are highly specific to the period, economic framework, and geographical conditions in which they were developed.
This clearly emphasizes that the assessment of feasibility of a given solid waste management systems needs to be in accordance to the individually prevailing conditions in a specific city or region. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers.
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source Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Introduction Rapid growth of the global population, permanently increasing life standards, and vast technological advancement are continually increasing the variety and amount of solid waste. Composting of municipal solid waste Because of diverse shortcomings such as the lack of waste segregation already at the origin, insufficient treatment, scarce reuse, lacking recycling systems, and often inappropriate disposal, solid waste management still has various gaps in the management chain which need to be filled.
All economic activities create a given solid waste pattern.
Source Typical waste generators Types of solid wastes Residential private sector Single and multifamily habitations Paper, cardboard, food wastes, plastics, textile rags, leather, yard waste, glass, lignocelluloses wood, grass, and lopping , metals, ashes heating and tobacco products , special wastes e. Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food wastes, glass, metals, special wastes, and hazardous waste Institutional sector Schools, universities, kindergartens, hospitals and other health and medical institutions, penitentiaries, government centers Same as for the commercial sector Construction and demolition sector New construction sites, renovation sites, road rehabilitation, demolition of buildings Wood, steel, asphalt, cement, insulation materials, dirt, dust, etc.
Table 1. Municipal solid waste management In parallel to the increase of population and economic activity, solid waste management is turning into a severe issue for almost all municipalities. Municipal solid waste life cycle assessment Life cycle assessment LCA is a process analytical tool recommended in many EU documents, e.
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