Apa manual research paper

APA format: everything you need to know

The abstract should be no fewer than words, but no more than Your abstract can also include keywords from your paper. This would allow researchers to find your work in databases easier.

APA In-Text Citation Guide for Research Writing

Below your abstract paragraph, indent as though you were starting a new paragraph. Next, type Keywords in italics. Complete it by listing your keywords. The body of your research paper should follow the universal format of introduction that discusses a problem, a thesis or argument that you intend to make, around three paragraphs in which you support your thesis and defend against counterarguments, and a conclusion that summarizes your work and discusses the broader implications. The APA format for the reference list is very specific.

American Psychological Association (APA) Style

The reference lines should be double-spaced and the second and subsequent lines for each reference should be indented half an inch from the left margin of your paper. Book titles and the titles of articles should be in italics. However, short publications, including newspapers, magazines and academic journals should not be italicized.

Here is an example for reference:.

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Stephens, D. How Chinese audiences are changing the way Hollywood makes movies. Journal of Entertainment, 24 2 , By clicking "Log In", you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We'll occasionally send you account related and promo emails. Diana from A Research Guide Don't know how to start your paper? Worry no more! Get professional writing assistance from our partner.

A Guide for Writing Research Papers, APA-Style

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All Materials are Catalog Well. Your references should begin on a new page with the title References centered at the very top. Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Tables are a great way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and easy to read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data.


This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant BCS awarded Sample One-Experiment Paper (The numbers refer to numbered. Click this link to download the PDF handout of the APA Sample Paper. . Research and Citation Resources; Conducting Research. Conducting Research .

However, it is important to note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in a table. If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of your paper. The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is clear and easy to understand.

If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table. There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and probability notes. General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the probability level. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your APA format reference list. Consult the image below for examples of journal articles in APA format.

APA Citation Style : APA Sample Papers

The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by their initials. Next, the publication year is enclosed in parentheses and followed by a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the article should also be included. Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available.

Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns.

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The basic format of an electronic reference is very similar to that of any other reference. However, you do need to include the date the reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the document. As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web.

A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix a four-digit number assigned to organizations and a suffix a number assigned by the publisher. Many publishers will include the DOI on the first page of an electronic document.

Format Examples

If a DOI is available, simply include it at the end of the reference as follows — doi Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. J Nurses Prof Dev.

APA format definition

More in Student Resources. Title Page Example. Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at the top of the page. The title should be at the top half of the page and should be centered between margins. Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation.

The APA suggests that your title is no more than 12 words in length. Avoid using titles or degree info such as Dr.

APA Format and Citations: Sixth (6th) Edition

Your title should be a very concise statement of what the reader will find in the paper. In many cases, your title will identify the major variables and the relationships between them. For example, "Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Math Performance" is an example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is about. You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to your title. Reference Pages.

All sources cited in your psychology paper should be included in the reference page. Your references should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each source. All references should be double-spaced.

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Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to be indented. In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized. If a colon appears in the title, the first letter after the colon should also be capitalized. The title should not be placed in quotations, underlined or italicized.

All major words in the title of a journal should be capitalized; i. The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and journals should appear in italics.